Physical, microstructure enhancement of K0.5Na0.5NbO3- based lead-free ceramics prepared via two-step sintering

Muhammad Qusyairie Saari, Julie Juliewatty Mohamed, Nor Fatin Khairah Bahanurddin, Mohammad Hafizuddin Jumali, Mohd Fariz Ab Rahman, Akhmad Herman Yuwono

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


Electroceramic material of K0.5Na0.5NbO3-based lead-free ceramics has a high potential application to be used as sensors, actuators and transducers. To realize the potential of K0.5Na0.5NbO3, the material must exhibit a high density with homogenous grain size. In this work, the two-step sintering was used to enhance the density and microstructure of the K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN) ceramic to produce better densification. The microstructure of the upper surface and cross section of the KNN pellet as a function of the different sintering conditions are systematically studied using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). The calcined powder was pressed into a pellet using a hydraulic hand press with a pressure of 0.3 tons for 1 min. The KNN pellet then was sent to sinter through conventional sintering and two-step sintering. In the two-step sintering, the first step was sintered at 1120 °C for 10 minutes of soaking time and the second step was sintered at 1070 °C for 10 hours of soaking time. The surface of the sintered specimens under investigation is well polished and thermally etched below the sintering temperature. Evident from the microstructure reveals a highly dense spherical, cubic and rounded shape of grains were received better compactness for samples sintered via two-step sintering compared with conventional sintering that has a large pore between the grain. The sample sintered through two-step sintering showed the highest density (4.244536 g/cm3) compared to the sample sintered through conventional sintering (4.117893 g/cm3).

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationInternational Conference on Bioengineering and Technology, IConBET2021
EditorsMardawani Mohamad, Muhammad Azwadi Sulaiman, Wan Hasnidah Wan Osman, Rosmawan Mohammad, Mohd Hazim Mohamad Amini, Seng Kew Wee, Noor Fazliani Shoparwe, Jia Geng Boon, Yee Ching Wong, Sarizam Mamat
PublisherAmerican Institute of Physics Inc.
ISBN (Electronic)9780735441934
Publication statusPublished - 9 Jun 2022
Event2021 International Conference on Bioengineering and Technology, IConBET2021 - Kelantan, Virtual, Malaysia
Duration: 24 May 202225 May 2022

Publication series

NameAIP Conference Proceedings
ISSN (Print)0094-243X
ISSN (Electronic)1551-7616


Conference2021 International Conference on Bioengineering and Technology, IConBET2021
CityKelantan, Virtual


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