Phylogeographic analysis of pigtail macaque populations (Macaca nemestrina) inferred from mitochondrial DNA

Lisa L. Rosenblum, Jatna Supriatna, Don J. Melnick

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23 Citations (Scopus)


Mitochondrial DNA variation was surveyed in nine populations of the pigtail macaque (Macaca nemestrina), covering all three recognized subspecies in Southeast Asia. To do this, a 2,300 base pair fragment spanning the mitochondrial NAD 3 and NAD 4 genes and flanking tRNA subunits leucine and glycine was targeted for amplification and digested with a battery of 16 restriction endonucleases. Out of a total of 107 individuals, 32 unique haplotypes could be distinguished. Parsimony and neighbor-joining analyses grouped the haplotypes into five strongly supported assemblages representing China/Thailand, Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, and Siberut. These results indicate that the mainland and island mtDNA haplotypes are strictly and uniquely limited to the geographic ranges of the recognized morphological subspecies. Cladistic and neighbor-joining analyses indicate that inferred phylogenies of mtDNA haplotypes are congruent with subspecies designations. Furthermore, in support of morphological studies, results indicate that the Mentawai macaque is most likely not a distinct species but a subspecies of M. nemestrina.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)35-45
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Physical Anthropology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Sept 1997


  • Biogeography
  • NAD 3 and NAD 4
  • Phylogeny
  • Primates
  • Southeast Asia


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