Philosophical analysis of manual technology urgency in the automation era and its relevance to human abilities

Ahmdal Haekal, Fristian Hadinata

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Technology is the closest object to humans. Since ancient times, technology has evolved along with the development of human culture. Ontologically, technology can not be separated from human life, because the essence of human being is their common sense power to create something to survive. This research is a qualitative study on the urgency of manual technology in the era of automation. In the era of automation, technological developments that started from manual to automatic leave questions about the role of humans and their ability to control technology. In this study, the writer uses the idea of Jacques Ellul to provide characteristic distinctions between manual and automatic technology in order to understand the deficiencies of both forms of technology. Researchers specifically use phenomenological methods to dissect the characteristics of both forms of technology and their relationship with humans. The conclusion of this study indicates that humans who were born in the modern era very depend on technology. Such dependence affects the degradation of human ability to control the technology. The characteristics of manual technology whose scope is limited by space and time, has little place in society, does not become an urgent factor as a system, develops locally, and gives the possibility to being to make choices is the main features of the technology. On the other hand, the automatic technology shows different characteristics such as a wide unlimited scope, having many places in society, being an urgent factor as a system, being able to overcome its shortcomings (self-augmented), integrating with various variables exist in society (holistic), developing and spreading globally on a universal scale, but it does not provide options for users/operators. The writer can conclude that the difference between the two does not mean that manual technology is better because it produces higher effectiveness than automatic does, or the automatic technology is better than the manual one because it provides efficiency for human life. Instead, the distinction becomes ‘a unity’ for the technological essence. Furthermore, it can be concluded also that this world is built by manual and automatic technology. Both still interact with each other and do not necessarily eliminate each other. Manual technology becomes a tool of critical reflection on automatic technology. Therefore, the manual technology is important in the current era of automation so the human capacity will not be destroyed by technology.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPhilosophy and the Everyday Lives
PublisherNova Science Publishers, Inc.
Number of pages18
ISBN (Electronic)9781536192193
Publication statusPublished - 9 Feb 2021


  • Automatic technology
  • Automatization
  • Human
  • Manual technology
  • Philosophy of technology


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