Objective: Although an anti-inflammatory effect of Phaleria macrocarpa (Mahkota Dewa in Indonesian) leaf extract has been reported, the extract shows toxicity as the dose increases. Chitosan nanoparticles are known to have transport properties that can enhance the targeting of active compounds to tissues at a lower dose. The present study sought to determine whether the extract in chitosan nanoparticles can suppress angiogenesis in the colon tissue of mice. Methods: We determined the antiangiogenic effect in 6 groups Swiss Webster mice: normal (N) group, negative control (NC) administered drinking water containing DSS 2% w/v (7 d) and followed by water without DSS (7 d) in 3 cycles, 12.5 and 25 mg leaf extract of P. macrocarpa/mouse (EPM 12.5 and EPM 25) groups, and 6.25 and 12.5 mg leaf extract of P. macrocarpa in chitosan nanoparticles/mouse (NPPM 6.25 and NPPM 12.5) groups. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained samples was performed to determine the amount of angiogenesis in the colon tissue. Results: The angiogenesis in the NPPM 12.5 (p = 0.105) and EPM 25 (p = 0.07) groups was not significantly different to that in the negative control group (administered DSS alone). By contrast, angiogenesis in the EPM 12.5 (p = 0.03) and NPPM 6.25 (p = 0.02) groups was significantly less than that in the DSS group. Conclusion: Angiogenesis in the colon tissue of mice was reduced by the extract with or without chitosan nanoparticles. The greatest reduction was found for the 12.5 mg/mouse dose of P. macrocarpa leaf extract in chitosan nanoparticles.
- Chitosan nanoparticles
- Phaleria macrocarpa leaf extract