Personal protective equipment and nurse self-efficacy due to Coronavirus disease-19 pandemic: A systematic review

Nur Meity Sulistia Ayu, Enie Novieastari, Dewi Gayatri, Hanny Handiyani, Diah Arruum

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: High number of nurses who infected and died from contracting coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 put them in a difficult situation during the COVID-19. Personal protective equipment (PPE) is the final line of protection for nurses from the risk of healthcare-associated infections, while self-efficacy plays an important role in surviving stressors during the pandemic. AIM: This review aims to analyze factors related to the use of PPE and nurse self-efficacy during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A systematic and comprehensive search using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses with six electronic databases was used. Nine cross-sectional, three cohorts and survey, one case–control, and one surveillance study met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: From 104 articles screened, 16 articles were included in this review. High self-protection was the main factor preventing nurses from contracting COVID-19 infection. Lack of PPE and low cautiousness were the primary factor for nurses of contracting COVID-19. Increased stress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and insomnia were associated with nurse’s low self-efficacy. CONCLUSION: The best protection for nurses from COVID-19 exposure is the availability and consistent use of PPE. Moreover, the consideration for designing staff training programs and psychological support was recommended for building nurses’ self-efficacy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)195-202
Number of pages8
JournalOpen Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Publication statusPublished - 11 May 2021


  • Coronavirus disease-19
  • Health-associated infections
  • Nurse
  • Personal protective equipment
  • Self-efficacy


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