Personal learning environment toward lifelong learning: an ontology-driven conceptual model

Baginda Anggun Nan Cenka, Harry B. Santoso, Kasiyah Junus

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Presently, learning is more flexible, personal and has richer learning resources. In the digital era, students use digital tools in almost all aspects of learning, such as seeking information, note-taking, discussion and communication, which is in line with personal learning environments. Therefore, this study proposes a conceptual model of the personal learning environment. The design science research framework is applied as a research guide to guarantee that the proposed model is relevant to our research statement, and the model design is rigorously grounded in relevant theory and methodology. The researcher conducted a systematic literature review and content analysis of relevant articles to identify the components of the personal learning environment and then proposed an initial ontology-driven conceptual model. Activity theory is used as a qualitative framework for preliminary evaluations of the resulting artefacts. The proposed conceptual model comprises four dimensions, including personal, technological, organisational and social, as well as teaching and learning. The implications of the proposed model are to equip teachers, developers, researchers and policymakers in understanding the design and promoting personal learning environments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6445-6461
Number of pages17
JournalInteractive Learning Environments
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 18 Feb 2022


  • activity theory
  • lifelong learning
  • ontology-driven conceptual model
  • personal learning environment
  • Self-Regulated learning


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