Periodontal Ligament Cell Sheets and RGD-Modified Chitosan Improved Regeneration in the Horizontal Periodontal Defect Model

Lisa R. Amir, Yuniarti Soeroso, Dewi Fatma, Hari Sunarto, Benso Sulijaya, Erik Idrus, Herlis Rahdewati, Angelia M. Tjokrovonco, Kenji Izumi, Basril Abbas, Fourier D.E. Latief

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective The aim of this study was to examine the potential of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells sheet and arginine-glycyl-aspartic acid (RGD)-modified chitosan scaffold for periodontal tissue regeneration in horizontal periodontal defect model. Materials and Methods PDL cell cytotoxicity was tested with 3-[4,5- dimethylthiazol-2yl]-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay. Cell migration toward the chitosan-based materials was analyzed with trans-well migration assay. Horizontal periodontal defect model was created in four maxillary and mandibular lateral incisors of Macaque nemestrina. Following periodontal therapy, the sites were transplanted with various regenerative materials: (1) chitosan, (2) RGD-modified chitosan, (3) PDL cell sheet with chitosan, (4) PDL cell sheet with RGD-modified chitosan. The periodontal tissue regeneration was evaluated clinically and radiographically. Gingival crevicular fluids were collected each week to evaluate cementum protein-1 (CEMP-1) expression with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, while the biopsies were retrieved after 4 weeks for histological and microcomputed tomography evaluation. Statistical Analysis Data was statistically analyzed using GraphPad Prism 6 for MacOS X. Normality was tested using the Shapiro-Wilk normality test. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the groups. Significance was accepted when p < 0.05. Results Clinical examination revealed more epithelial attachment was formed in the group with PDL cell sheet with RGD-modified chitosan. Similarly, digital subtraction radiography analysis showed higher gray scale, an indication of higher alveolar bone density surrounded the transplanted area, as well as higher CEMP-1 protein expression in this group. The incorporation of RGD peptide to chitosan scaffold in the group with or without PDL cells sheet reduced the distance of cement-enamel junction to the alveolar bone crest; hence, more periodontal tissue formed. Conclusions Horizontal periodontal defect model could be successfully created in M. nemestrina model. Combination of PDL cell sheet and RGD-modified chitosan resulted in the higher potential for periodontal tissue regeneration. The results of this study highlight the PDL cell sheet and RGD-modified chitosan as a promising approach for future clinical use in periodontal regeneration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)306-314
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Journal of Dentistry
Volume14
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2020

Keywords

  • arginine-glycyl-aspartic acid
  • chitosan
  • horizontal periodontal defect
  • periodontal cell sheet
  • periodontal tissue regeneration

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