Perception of Pain and Its Risk Factors During ESWL Session

Bagus Baskoro Yusuf, Ponco Birowo, Nur Rasyid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) is indicated for the therapy of kidneyand ureteral stone with the size of <20 mm and has been used worldwide. The most frequentcomplication that comes from this procedure is the perception of pain which has known to have an impact on the outcome therapy whice are stone fragmentation and stone free rate. Perception of pain which is known to be subjective can be measured by Visual Analog Scale (VAS) which is widely used to measured the pain intesity. Some of the risk factors of pain perception in patient who underwent ESWL procedure are noticed in this review and are categorized into device, patient, and stone sharacteristics. Device caracteristics are type of device, shock wave frequency per minute, and the energy level. Patient characteristics include gender, age, body mass index, and an anxiety state of a patient, and stone characteristics includes location and size of the sone, rib’s projection stone, stone burden and also stone composition which influenced to the outcome of therapy and retreatment of ESWL. Knowing the predictive risk factors for pain in patient who underwent ESWL are important in order to prepare the need of analgesia and sedation before the procedure to achieve good outcome of ESWL therapy.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of the Indonesian Medical Association
Publication statusPublished - 2012


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