Perception of dental visit pictures in children with autism spectrum disorder and their caretakers: A qualitative study

Witriana L. Wibisono, Margaretha Suharsini Soetopo, Tjhin Wiguna, Budiharto Sudiroatmodjo, Sarworini B. Budiardjo, Elza Ibrahim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: One of the most common ways to communicate to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is by using pictures. This study was conducted to identify the easiest perception of dental visit by children with ASD when using pictures as printed photographs. Materials and Methods: Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants from a school for children with special needs in south Jakarta. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 autistic children aged 13-17 years, 2 parents, and 2 teachers. Open-ended questions were asked to participants regarding pictures of dental clinic personnel and activity. Conversations were noted, tape recorded, and then categorized to extract a theme. The data were analyzed using Dedoose mixed methods software. Results: Most respondents showed a positive perception of the dental visit pictures. Many of the pictures were easily recognized by children with ASD, but some failed to be understood. Caretakers not only gave their perception but also recommendations for improvement of the pictures. Conclusions: Dental visit pictures could be used as useful communication tools for children with ASD. Based on the results, the pictures related to dental visit were generally easy to understand, however, some needed correction to be comprehensible.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)359-365
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of International Society of Preventive and Community Dentistry
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2016


  • Autism spectrum disorder
  • dental visit picture
  • visual perception


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