Genome research which examines association of each gene with a disease and its mechanism to explore comprehensive knowledge in disease treatment, has brought about great changes in medicine in the treatment of diseases. However, genomic research should not only be applied in treatment but also in disease prevention. This article discusses public health problems and opportunities of genomic research application in disease prevention. Genome research that can be utilized in the field of public health is toxicogenomics and nutrigenomics. Research toxicogenomics investigate gene responses due to exposure to the toxicant that impact on human health. Nutrigenomics research examines gene response to food that affect to human health. Toxicogenomics and nutrigenomics research can uncover the molecular mechanisms of disease. Furthermore, the gene expression changes that may be used as molecular targets for prevention. Thus, the development of genome research provides a challenge for the development of public health sciences to be used in the prevention of disease.