Pathway towards 100% renewable energy in Indonesia power system by 2050

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This study assesses Indonesia power system's transition pathway to reach 100% renewable energy in 2050. The pathway is determined based on least-cost optimisation in the TIMES model comparing 27 power plants and 3 energy storage technologies and using hourly demand and supply operational profile using 24-h time slices. From this study, it can be concluded that nuclear and solar PV utility-scale will play an essential role up to 16% and 70% of total electricity production, corresponding to 1396 TWh in 2050. The investment cost in 2050 is three times higher, and the emission is one-sixth lower than in Business as Usual, equal to 95 billion USD and 215 million tons of CO2-eq. The RE mix based on current policy generates a higher CO2 abatement cost, 120 USD/ton CO2-eq in 2050. The optimistic demand projection will increase the coal by 82% in Business as Usual also nuclear and solar PV utility-scale of about 126% and 62% in 100% RE, respectively. The exclusion nuclear in power system increase the installed capacity of solar PV utility-scale and battery, increase land requirement by 78%–83%, increase the variability of supply from other power plants and batteries, and increase 9.7% of electricity production cost.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)305-321
Number of pages17
JournalRenewable Energy
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021


  • 100% renewable energy
  • Energy storage
  • Hourly operational profile
  • Power system
  • Variable renewable energy


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