Pathogenic Leptospira contamination in the environment: a systematic review

Yulia Sayanthi, Dewi Susanna

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Background: The pathogenic Leptospira is maintained in renal tubules of certain animals, mostly rodents, and excreted in the urine which can contaminate the environment. It is necessary to detect pathogenic Leptospira in environmental samples. Knowing the survival of Leptospira in the environment (water and soil) can provide an overview of where and how they can be transmitted to humans. Objective: Therefore, this study aimed to provide a systematic overview of pathogenic Leptospira presence in water and soil environment, the various species of pathogenic Leptospira that are harmful for human, and the ability to survive using a systematic review method. Methods: The search process used four databases: PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and ProQuest. Furthermore, the articles sought were published from 2000 to July 2021, and 38 were analysed. Results: The pathogenic Leptospira contamination in water was higher in urban areas, while soil samples were higher in rural areas. Various pathogenic Leptospira detected in the environment were L. alstonii, L. kmetyi, L. noguchii, and L. interrogans. Those pathogenic Leptospira can survive in water at 4–30°C and at pH < 7; in soil, it can survive at a humidity of < 20% and a pH < 6. Conclusion: Urban and rural areas have the same risk for leptospirosis disease because pathogenic Leptospira (P1).

Original languageEnglish
Article number2324820
JournalInfection Ecology and Epidemiology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • environmental
  • Leptospira
  • leptospirosis
  • soil
  • water


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