Paternal self-efficacy in the patriarchal culture of Kupang city, Indonesia

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Paternal self-efficacy is an attribute related to the involvement and motivation of fathers. Individuals who have high self-efficacy will show a greater motivation to achieve a particular goal. This study aims to describe the socio-demographic characteristics and paternal self-efficacy of fathers in the city of Kupang. We applied a cross-sectional approach using cluster random sampling to a sample of 150 men in Kupang, Indonesia. A socio-demographic questionnaire and a general self-efficacy questionnaire comprised of the instruments used in this study. The results show that the majority of fathers in Kupang are in late adulthood, highly educated, have jobs, have income higher than the minimum regional income of Kupang, have two or more children, and have high paternal self-efficacy. Even in their patriarchal society, fathers in Kupang show high paternal self-efficacy. Higher paternal self-efficacy is a foundation for involving males in childbearing periods in their families.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S457-S460
JournalEnfermeria Clinica
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021


  • Kupang
  • Paternal self-efficacy
  • Socio-demographic factors


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