Outdoor activity classification using smartphone based inertial sensor measurements

Rushikesh Bodhe, Saaveethya Sivakumar, Gopal Sakarkar, Filbert H. Juwono, Catur Apriono

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Human Activity Recognition (HAR) deals with the automatic recognition of physical activities and plays a crucial role in healthcare and sports where wearable sensors and intelligent computational techniques are used. We propose a HAR algorithm that uses the smartphones accelerometer data for human activity recognition. In particular, we present a recurrent convolutional neural network-based HAR algorithm that combines a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to extract temporal features from the sensor data, a Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering algorithm to cluster the features extracted by the CNN, and a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) network to learn the temporal dependencies between the features. We evaluate the proposed methodology on two distinct datasets: the MotionSense dataset and the WISDM dataset. We evaluate the proposed CNN-FCM-LSTM model on the publicly available MotionSense dataset to classify ten activity types: 1) walking upstairs, 2) walking downstairs, 3) jogging, 4) sitting, 5) standing, 6) level ground walking, 7) jumping jacks, 8) brushing teeth, 9) writing, and 10) eating. Next, we evaluate the model’s performance on the WISDM dataset to assess its ability to generalize to unseen data. On the MotionSense test dataset, CNN-FCM-LSTM achieves a classification accuracy of 99.69%, a sensitivity of 99.62%, a specificity of 99.63%, and a false positive rate per hour (FPR/h) of 0.37%. Meanwhile, it achieves a classification accuracy of 97.27% on the WISDM dataset. The CNN-FCM-LSTM model’s capability to classify a diverse range of activities within a single architecture is noteworthy. The results suggest that the proposed CNN-FCM-LSTM model using smartphone inputs is more accurate, reliable, and robust in detecting and classifying activities than the state-of-the-art models. It should be noted that activity recognition technology has the potential to aid in studying the underpinnings of physical activity, designing more effective training regimens, and simulating the rigors of competition in sports.

Original languageEnglish
JournalMultimedia Tools and Applications
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2024


  • Deep recurrent learning
  • Human activity recognition
  • Wearable sensors
  • Wrist acceleration


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