Oral manifestations of HIV: Can they be an indicator of disease severity? (A systematic review)

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Objective: To review the existing research literature on the paradigm that the oral lesions could be an indicator of the disease severity with the objective of documenting the current status of research, highlighting its major findings. Material and methods: Publications were identified through a careful search, of which a majority focused on oral lesions as an indicator for HIV progression. A PubMed journal search of 10 years OF period publication (2009–2019) for “oral lesion, oral manifestation, indicator, HIV and HIV-associated” was performed and analysed. Various research methods were included within the study criteria including clinical study, clinical trial, comparative study and randomised control trial. Results: A total 33 studies were obtained and analysed, including cohort study, cross-sectional study, case–control study, clinical trial, retrospective observational analysis study, prospective observational study and randomised control trial. The most common oral lesions found in the studies were Kaposi sarcoma (KS), followed by oral candidiasis, periodontitis, necrotising ulcerative gingivitis (NUG), necrotising ulcerative periodontitis (NUP) and oral hairy leucoplakia (OHL). The early diagnosis and accurate treatment plan were very important to indicate the disease severity related to HIV infection. Conclusion: Oral lesions reported in 39% articles and could be an indicator of HIV disease severity due to its effects on decreased cluster-differentiated (CD4+) T-cell count and increased viral load.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)133-136
Number of pages4
JournalOral Diseases
Issue numberS1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2020


  • HIV
  • HIV-associated
  • oral lesion
  • oral manifestations


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