Open study on efficacy and safety of levofloxacin in treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever

R. H.H. Nelwan, Khie Chen, Nafrialdi, Diana Paramita

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Abstract

The main objective of this study was to determine the clinical efficacy and safety of levofloxacin in an open setting for typhoid fever cases. Patients with clinical signs and symptoms of typhoid fever without previous antimicrobial treatment admitted to affiliated hospitals of the Faculty of Medicine, University Indonesia were included in this study. Adults, 18 years or above, were screened for any serious underlying conditions, pregnancy or possible complications of typhoid fever before final enrollment. Fifty-three subjects were screened, 48 were enrolled. The final diagnosis of enteric fever was made by positive blood culture, polymerase chain reaction or serology, was obtained in 31 cases, in whom one had a concomitant sinus infection and had to be excluded. Thirty patients (11 males, 19 females) aged between 18-58 years (mean 31.7 years) with a history of fever between 1 and 10 days (mean 6.1 days) showed excellent clinical response, becoming afebrile at an average of 2.43 days (range 1-5 days). Adverse effects noted were nausea in 4 patients, vomiting in one and meteorism in another one, which were all difficult to distinguish from the enteric infection. A pruritic rash occurring in two patients may be related to levofloxacin, and insomnia in another patient may be related. Microbiological clearance was obtained both immediately after treatment and at one month. No carrier states were detected in the cases positive for Salmonella typhi or paratyphi. None of the treated typhoid fever cases experienced a clinical relapse. In this open study of levofloxacin 500 mg/day for one week in treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever, a 100% clinical efficacy was obtained in 30 patients with minimal adverse reactions warranting more intensive studies for this new indication of an old but well known disease in the developing world.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)126-130
Number of pages5
JournalSoutheast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
Volume37
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2006

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