Nurse workforce scheduling: A qualitative study of Indonesian nurse managers' experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic

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7 Citations (Scopus)


Background: The increase in COVID-19 cases in Indonesia has resulted in changes in the hospital workflow, including the staffing process and scheduling, especially in the isolation units. Nurse managers are working hard in the scheduling system to ensure high-quality care is provided with the best human resources. Objective: This study aimed to explore the experiences of nurse managers in managing staff nurses' work schedules during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A qualitative descriptive design was used in this study. Eleven nurse managers from three COVID-19 referral hospitals were selected using purposive sampling. Data were collected using online semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis was used for data analysis, and data were presented using a thematic tree. Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ) checklist was used as a reporting guideline of the study. Results: Four themes were developed: (i) Nurse shortage, (ii) Strategically looking for ways to fulfill the workforce, (iii) Change of shift schedule, and (iv) Expecting guidance from superiors and compliance from staff. Conclusion: The lack of nurse staff is a problem during a pandemic. Thus, managing personnel effectively, mobilizing and rotating, and recruiting volunteers are strategies to fulfill the workforce during the pandemic. Using a sedentary shift pattern and sufficient holidays could prevent nurses from falling ill and increase compliance with scheduling. In addition, a staffing calculation formula is needed, and top nursing managers are suggested to provide guidance or direction to the head nurses to reduce confusion in managing the work schedule during the pandemic.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)53-59
Number of pages7
JournalBelitung Nursing Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • COVID-19
  • Indonesia
  • nurse managers
  • scheduling
  • staffing
  • workforce


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