Background: Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is often underdiagnosed in patients with metabolic encephalopathy (ME). The diagnosis of ME should be made specifically to recognize the underlying etiology. Delay in seizure identification and making a diagnosis of NCSE contributed to the poor outcome. Objective: This study aimed to find the incidence and outcome of NCSE in patients with ME. Methods and Material: This was an observational prospective cross-sectional study in patients with ME in emergency and critical care units in Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital. The diagnosis of NCSE was based on EEG using Salzburg Criteria for Nonconvulsive Status Epilepticus (SCNC). The outcome was assessed within 30 days after the NCSE diagnosis has been made. Results: A total of 50 patients with ME were involved in this study. NCSE was confirmed in 32 subjects (64%). The most common etiology of ME was sepsis (58%). The mortality rate in the NCSE and non-NCSE group was 40.6% vs 44.4%. Multiple aetiologies were risk factors to poor outcome in the NCSE group. Conclusions: The incidence of NCSE among patients with ME at our hospital was high. Despite the anti-epileptic treatment of the NCSE group, the underlying cause of ME is still the main factor that affected the outcome. Therefore, aggressive treatment of anti-epileptic drug (AED) should be very carefully considered knowing the possible side-effect that might worsen the outcome of patients with ME.
- Metabolic encephalopathy
- non-convulsive status epilepticus