Non-vascular contributing factors of diabetic foot ulcer severity in national referral hospital of Indonesia

Em Yunir, Dicky L. Tahapary, Tri Juli Edi Tarigan, Dante Saksono Harbuwono, Yoga Dwi Oktavianda, Melly Kristanti, Eni Iswati, Angela Sarumpaet, Pradana Soewondo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a common chronic complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Indonesia, with a prevalence of 7.3%. However, the characteristics of these patients remain unclear. We investigated the characteristics of patients with DFU without peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and analyzed non-vascular factors related to severity of DFU in a tertiary care national referral hospital in Indonesia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study including 123 hemodynamically stable DFU patients without PAD recruited from Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia from 2010–2015. Results: DFU patients were predominantly over 50 years old (75.6%) and diagnosed with T2DM for 5 years with poor glycemic control (82.7%) and peripheral neuropathy (91.3%). Most patients had anemia (86.7%), leukocytosis (84.6%), and were undernourished, as characterized by a low lipid profile (90.8%) and hypoalbuminemia (83.7%). Most had extensive size of ulcer at the initial visit, with a median size of 16.23 (2.92–60.16) cm2. Ulcers were mostly located of the forefoot (62.5%) and were caused by mechanical trauma (46.2%). Bivariate analysis revealed that significant factors for the development of DFU were related to DFU size, including duration of T2DM (p = 0.04), leukocyte levels (p = < 0.01), and thrombocyte levels (p = < 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed leucocyte (p = 0.03) and thrombocyte (p = 0.023) had significantly correlated with DFU severity. Conclusion: Leucocyte and thrombocyte may be the greatest contributing non-vascular factors for severity of DFU in Indonesia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)805-813
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021


  • Diabetic foot ulcer
  • Leucocyte
  • Non-vascular factor
  • Thrombocyte


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