Neuroprotective Effects of Citicoline on Methanol-Intoxicated Retina Model in Rats

Yulinda Arty Laksmita, Mohamad Sidik, Nurjati Chairani Siregar, Syntia Nusanti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the effect of citicoline administration in suppressing retinal damage due to methanol intoxication. This study hypothesizes that citicoline will minimize the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), minimize disruption of photoreceptors, suppress ganglion layer edema, increase expression of bcl-2 as the antiapoptotic protein, and decrease expression of caspase-3 as the proapoptotic protein. Methods: Fifteen Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups, including the control group (A); methanol groups, observed on day 3 (B1) and day 7 (B2); and methanol+citicoline groups, observed on day 3 (C1) and day 7 (C2). Rats in groups B and C were placed in an inhalation chamber filled with N2O:O2 during the experiment, then methanol was administered orally. Citicoline, 1 g/kg every 24 h, was orally administered for group C. Enucleation was performed and retinas of rats were prepared for histology and immunohistochemistry examination to evaluate photoreceptor morphology and RGC density, as well as bcl-2 and caspase-3 expression. Results: RGC density of citicoline-treated intoxicated rats was higher than no-citicoline methanol-intoxicated rats on both day 3 (P < 0.001) and day 7 (P < 0.001). The ganglion layer thickness of citicoline-treated intoxicated rats was thinner than no-citicoline intoxicated rats, which means citicoline-treated rats had milder ganglion layer edema. Citicoline-treated rats showed higher bcl-2 and lower caspase-3 expression than no-citicoline rats. No differences were found in photoreceptor findings among groups. Conclusions: This study demonstrated citicoline's potential benefits for management of ocular methanol intoxication. However, more preclinical and clinical trials are needed to obtain a preferred dosage and timing of citicoline administration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)534-541
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021


  • citicoline
  • methanol intoxication
  • methanol optic neuropathy
  • neuroprotector
  • retina
  • toxic optic neuropathy


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