Medicinal plants are candidates for the discovery of potential new anti-inflammatory agents. Curcumin is the active compound found in turmeric root, which has high anti-inflammatory activity. One of the limitations of curcumin as a therapeutic agent is its low solubility in water and extensive first-pass effect metabolism. The aim of this study was to formulate curcumin nanoemulsion for parenteral injection. We prepared curcumin nanoemulsions with a homogenizer using three surfactant concentrations (1.8%; 2.4%; and 3%) and two curcumin concentrations (1% and 3%). Formulas were evaluated for droplet diameter, polydispersity index, zeta potential, viscosity, pH, entrapment efficiency (EE), osmolality, sterility, and morphology. The nanoemulsion containing 1% curcumin and 3% surfactant (F3) demonstrated good stability. Curcumin nanoemulsions at 20 and 40 mg/kg doses showed anti-inflammatory activity on carrageenan-induced paw edema in male Sprague-Dawley rats. These two doses inhibited paw edema by 33% and 56% respectively at 5 h after carrageenan induction. Inhibition of edema volume by curcumin nanoemulsion at a dose of 40 mg/kg did not show a significant difference (P > 0.05) compared to the activity of the standard drug ketorolac at a dose of 2.7 mg/kg. We conclude that curcumin nanoemulsion has anti-inflammatory activity and can be a promising anti-inflammatory agent.
- Intravenous injection
- Palm oil (LCT oil)