Comparison of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotype distributions in different areas might help to find determinants of the emergence of certain genotypes, such as the Beijing family. In this study, M. tuberculosis isolates originating from patients from two Indonesian islands were genotyped, and possible associations with patients' characteristics and drug resistance were explored. A high degree of genetic diversity was observed among the M. tuberculosis strains, and a significant difference was found in the geographical distribution of genotype families. The predominant Beijing genotype family was isolated from 268 of 813 patients from West Java (33.0%) versus 12 of 84 patients from Timor (14.3%) (P = 0.002). Family F (East African-Indian) (33.3%) and family D (Latin American and Mediterranean) (20.0%) were more prevalent in Timor. No significant associations were found between genotype families and age, vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis BCG, previous treatment, disease localization, or drug resistance. Possible explanations for the differences in the geographical distribution of the M. tuberculosis genotypes are discussed.