Multi-stage heat-pipe heat exchanger for improving energy efficiency of the HVAC system in a hospital operating room

Ragil Sukarno, Nandy Putra, Imansyah Ibnu Hakim, Fadhil Fuad Rachman, Teuku Meurah Indra Mahlia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


The demands of specific requirements related to thermal comforts, such as temperature, relative humidity, inside air exchange and other factors required in a hospital operating rooms, have necessitated the development of energy-efficient heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and efficient heat-recovery system using a heat-pipe heat exchanger (HPHE). The experiment was conducted by using HPHEs having three, six and nine rows, with four heat pipes in each row, arranged in a staggered configuration with a variation of fresh-air inlet temperature and velocity. The theoretical analysis was conducted using the ϵ-NTU method for predicting the effectiveness, outlet temperature of the evaporator side and energy recovery of the HPHE. The experimental results indicated that increasing the air-inlet temperature in the evaporator section and the number of rows increased the HPHE effectiveness but increasing the air-inlet velocity reduced the effectiveness. The highest effectiveness of 62.6% was obtained at an air-inlet temperature of 45°C with an air-inlet velocity of 2 m/s and a 9-row HPHE. The energy recovery of the HPHE increased with the number of rows, air-inlet temperature and air velocity in the evaporator section. The ϵ-NTU method can be used as a comparison method in the analysis of heat-recovery systems that apply HPHE air conditioning systems. Heat pipes that utilize cold-air exhaust from a room in an HVAC system can enhance efficiency and reduce emissions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)259-267
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2021


  • effectiveness
  • energy recovery
  • heat-pipe heat exchanger
  • ϵ-NTU


Dive into the research topics of 'Multi-stage heat-pipe heat exchanger for improving energy efficiency of the HVAC system in a hospital operating room'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this