Multi-layered exclusions of women heads of household over land: Case study on ex-plantation concession area in Nanggung village, Nanggung sub-district, Bogor regency, West Java Province, Indonesia

Ratnasari, Mia Siscawati, Ani Widyani Soetjipto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

This paper explores the position of women heads of household as landless peasants who face multi-layered exclusions over land in the implementation of land reform program that takes place at state land that formerly managed under an industrial plantation concession permit (Hak Guna Usaha/HGU for industrial plantation area). In doing so, this paper adopts feminist political ecology theory and the power of exclusion theory. Data presented in this paper are derived from qualitative research in Nanggung Village, Nanggung Sub-District, Bogor Regency, West Java Province, Indonesia. In Nanggung Village, most villagers, including landless women heads of household, are tillers on small pieces of lands located within an area of state land. This area was managed by a private company that held an official concession permit from the central government to build an industrial plantation. The situation in Nanggung Village is representative of how agrarian injustice occurs where only 23% of the total village land is owned by its inhabitants in the form of housing areas, yards, gardens, and paddy fields. The rest of the village lands is considered state lands, controlled by a private plantation company, PT. Hevindo and the state forestry company, Perhutani. The PT. Hevindo has abandoned almost 75% of the plantation concession lands, but they still want to extend its concession license, which expired in 2013. With support from several NGOs, peasants of Nanggung Village have submitted a request that the abandoned state lands should be redistributed to the peasants through a national land reform program, namely the Object for Agrarian Reform (Tanah Objek Reforma Agraria, TORA). In this process, landless women heads of household face multi-layered exclusions in relation to nuclear family, extended family, peasant community, villagers, non-government organizations (which have community empowerment programs in Nanggung Village), and the state domain. The Multi-layered exclusions faced by landless women heads of household were ignored in the struggle over land by local peasants’ organizations, which used TORA program for claiming peasants’ rights over land through the land redistribution. Consequently, landless women heads of household could not benefit from TORA program.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)97-120
Number of pages24
JournalAsian Women
Volume36
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2020

Keywords

  • Agrarian reform
  • Feminist study
  • Multi-layered exclusions
  • Women heads of household

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