Monkeys and toads define areas of endemism on Sulawesi

Ben J. Evans, Jatna Supriatna, Noviar Andayani, Mohammed Iqbal Setiadi, David C. Cannatella, Don J. Melnick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

91 Citations (Scopus)


Ecological or geological phenomena can impose limits on geographic diversification that cause biogeographical patterns of distantly related but sympatrically occurring taxa to be similar. Concordant patterns of diversity facilitate conservation management because strategic designation of protected areas can capture complementary rather than redundant components of variation. Here we demonstrate that on the biodiverse Indonesian island of Sulawesi, seemingly idiosyncratic distributions of diversity in endemic monkeys (Macaca species) and toads (Bufo celebensis) are actually virtually identical on a fine geographic scale. It appears that range fragmentation has generated seven multi-taxon areas of genetic endemism, each of which should be targeted for conservation. Joint consideration of molecular phylogeography, morphology, and demography helps resolve apparent contradictions in paraphyletic macaque mitochondrial DNA and in undifferentiated toad morphology, and facilitates an understanding of biogeography and conservation genetics of Sulawesi fauna.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1436-1443
Number of pages8
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2003


  • Biogeography
  • Conservation genetics
  • Indonesia
  • Phylogeography
  • Vicariance


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