Background and purpose: In this paper, we investigate the possibility to use X-ray based real time 2D/3D registration for non-invasive tumor motion monitoring during radiotherapy. Materials and methods: The 2D/3D registration scheme is implemented using general purpose computation on graphics hardware (GPGPU) programming techniques and several algorithmic refinements in the registration process. Validation is conducted off-line using a phantom and five clinical patient data sets. The registration is performed on a region of interest (ROI) centered around the planned target volume (PTV). Results: The phantom motion is measured with an rms error of 2.56 mm. For the patient data sets, a sinusoidal movement that clearly correlates to the breathing cycle is shown. Videos show a good match between X-ray and digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) displacement. Mean registration time is 0.5 s. Conclusions: We have demonstrated that real-time organ motion monitoring using image based markerless registration is feasible.
- 2D/3D registration
- Organ motion