Molecular Phenotyping of AR Signaling for Predicting Targeted Therapy in Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer

Agus Rizal A.H. Hamid, Maria V. Luna-Velez, Aleksandra M. Dudek, Cornelius F.J. Jansen, Frank Smit, Tilly W. Aalders, Gerald W. Verhaegh, Ewout Schaafsma, John P.M. Sedelaar, Jack A. Schalken

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2 Citations (Scopus)


Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is defined by resistance of the tumor to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Several molecular changes, particularly in the AR signaling cascade, have been described that may explain ADT resistance. The variety of changes may also explain why the response to novel therapies varies between patients. Testing the specific molecular changes may be a major step towards personalized treatment of CRPC patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the molecular changes in the AR signaling cascade in CRPC patients. We have developed and validated several methods which are easy to use, and require little tissue material, for exploring AR signaling pathway changes simultaneously. We found that the AR signaling pathway is still active in the majority of our CRPC patients, due to molecular changes in AR signaling components. There was heterogeneity in the molecular changes observed, but we could classify the patients into 4 major subgroups which are: AR mutation, AR amplification, active intratumoral steroidogenesis, and combination of AR amplification and active intratumoral steroidogenesis. We suggest characterizing the AR signaling pathway in CRPC patients before beginning any new treatment, and a recent fresh tissue sample from the prostate or a metastatic site should be obtained for the purpose of this characterization.

Original languageEnglish
Article number721659
JournalFrontiers in Oncology
Publication statusPublished - 19 Aug 2021


  • androgen receptor
  • castration-resistant prostate cancer
  • gene amplification
  • gene mutation
  • splice variant
  • steroidogenic enzymes


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