Modified Pathway to Survival highlights importance of rapid access to quality institutional delivery care to decrease neonatal mortality in Serang and Jember districts, Java, Indonesia

Henry D. Kalter, Philip W. Setel, Poppy E. Deviany, Sri A. Nugraheni, Sri Sumarmi, Emily H. Weaver, Kamaluddin Latief, Tika Rianty, Fitri Nandiaty, Trisari Anggondowati, Endang L. Achadi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Three-quarters of births in Indonesia occur in a health facility, yet the neonatal mortality rate remains high at 15 per 1000 live births. The Pathway to Survival (P-to-S) framework of steps needed to return sick neonates and young children to health focuses on caregiver recognition of and care-seeking for severe illness. In view of increased institutional delivery in Indonesia and other low- and middle-income countries, a modified P-to-S is needed to assess the role of maternal complications in neonatal survival. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional verbal and social autopsy study of all neonatal deaths from June through December 2018, identified by a proven listing method in two districts of Java, Indonesia. We examined care-seeking for maternal complications, delivery place, and place and timing of neonatal illness onset and death. Results: The fatal illnesses of 189/259 (73%) neonates began in their delivery facility (DF), 114/189 (60%) of whom died before discharge. Mothers whose neonate's illness started at their delivery hospital and lower-level DF were more than six times (odds ratio (OR) = 6.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.4-12.5) and twice (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.01-4.02) as likely to experience a maternal complication as those whose neonates fell fatally ill in the community, and illness started earlier (mean = 0.3 vs 3.6 days; P < 0.001) and death came sooner (3.5 vs 5.3 days; P = 0.06) to neonates whose illness started at any DF. Despite going to the same number of providers/facilities, women with a labour and delivery (L/D) complication who sought care from at least one other provider or facility on route to their DF took longer than those without a complication to reach their DF (median = 3.3 vs 1.3 hours; P = 0.01). Conclusions: Neonates' fatal illness onset in their DF was strongly associated with maternal complications. Mothers with a L/D complication experienced delays in reaching their DF, and nearly half the neonatal deaths occurred in association with a complication, suggesting that mothers with complications first seeking care at a hospital providing emergency maternal and neonatal care might have prevented some deaths. A modified P-to-S highlights the importance of rapid access to quality institutional delivery care in settings where many births occur in facilities and/or there is good care-seeking for L/D complications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number04020
Pages (from-to)4020
Number of pages1
JournalJournal of Global Health
Volume13
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 14 Apr 2023

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