Modification of carbon foam with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was successfully performed through a hydrothermal method. The modified AuNPs were functionalised with 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA) to improve their affinity toward microorganisms. TEM and SEM characterization indicated that although polydisperse spherical nanoparticles of AuNPs with particle sizes around 17 nm were obtained, the attached nanoparticles were agglomerated to be around 0.4 to 1.5 μm in size on the carbon foam surface. The electrochemical studies using cyclic voltammetry technique affirmed that the modified carbon foam electrodes have electroactive properties against glucose. Evaluation of the electrode was performed for a microbial fuel cell using Candida fukuyamaensis yeast as the microorganisms. The polarization curves showed that functionalisation of AuNPs-modified carbon foam with MBA provides around three times higher current density (1226.93 mA m−2) and power density (330.61 mW m−2) compared to the unmodified one. This result indicated that the modification is suitable to improve yeast attachment on the electrode surface.