Modern residential energy inequalities in Indonesia: spatial and income analyses

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21 Citations (Scopus)


This study put forward the inequality issues in modern residential energy consumption from both income and spatial viewpoints, with special regard to the Indonesian case. Energy inequality was viewed from the perspective of energy justice in both distribution and recognition. This study employed qualitative analysis with Theil’s, Gini, and mixed-Gini index methods. The energy usage inequalities have declined, both overall and by the dimensions of spatial and income levels, except in urban areas. However, this paper found that some groups were susceptible to fall into energy-poor, especially residents in rural areas, remote areas, and eastern Indonesia. Besides improving a more stable electricity grid, the government should continue the energy-saving solar lighting (LTSHE) program and promote small-scale decentralized technologies. LPG distribution should be improved. A program such as the cheap clean stove needs to be developed to reach those without access to clean cooking fuel.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)329-350
Number of pages22
JournalEnergy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning and Policy
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jun 2020


  • electricity
  • Energy inequality
  • energy justice
  • gini index
  • Indonesia
  • LPG
  • Theil’s Index


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