Ultra-long span unrepeatered systems using distributed Raman amplification are cost-effective solutions for bridging moderate transmission distances. However, there are two major limiting factors: nonlinear Kerr effect-induced nonlinear signal distortion and optical signal-to-noise ratio degradation due to spontaneous Raman noise. In this report, we proposed a model of threesegment hybrid fiber effective core area structure and developed a model covering: (1) generalized mathematical formulations, (2) analysis of three-segment Raman amplified link, and (3) simulation model of data transmission. The proposed model showed an improvement of the Raman gain profile, a reduction of the negative impact of the nonlinear Kerr effect, and an enhancement of the optical signal-to-noise ratio. A numerical simulation of the transmission performance of the three-segment hybrid structure was compared to conventional single-segment single fiber core structure on 80 Gb/s differential quadrature phase-shift keying (DQPSK) modulated data signals over a propagation distance of 390 km. The required optical signal-to-noise ratio was reduced by 2.71 dB to achieve the target error rate without using forward error correction. The numerical model and simulation of various data rates up to 100 Gb/s consistently showed that an improvement in transmission performance could be achieved by using three-segment hybrid fiber effective core area structure.
- Distributed Raman amplification
- Fiber effective core area
- Nonlinear Kerr effect
- Optical fiber communication
- Ultra-long span system