Embryo selection for in vitro fertilization (IVF) is an effort to increase the success rate of embryo implantation. Factors influencing the success of embryo implantation include embryo quality, endometrial receptivity, embryo characteristics, and maternal interactions. Some molecules have been found to influence these factors, but their regulatory mechanisms are unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are reported to play an essential role in the embryo implantation process. miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs consisting of only 20 nucleotides that play an essential role in the stability of gene expression regulation. Previous studies have reported that miRNAs have many roles and are released by cells into the extracellular environment for intracellular communication. In addition, miRNAs can provide information related to physiological and pathological conditions. These findings encourage research development in determining the quality of embryos in IVF to increase the implantation success rate. Moreover, miRNAs can provide an overview of embryo-maternal communication and potentially be noninvasive biological markers of embryo quality, which could increase assessment accuracy while reducing mechanical damage to the embryo itself. This review article summarizes the involvement of extracellular miRNAs and the potential applications of miRNAs in IVF.
- In Vitro Fertilization