microRNA-221 and tamoxifen resistance in luminal-subtype breast cancer patients: A case-control study

Alfiah Amiruddin, Muhammad Nassrum Massi, Andi Asadul Islam, Ilhamjaya Patellongi, Muhammad Yogi Pratama, Noorwati Sutandyo, Rosdiana Natzir, Mochammad Hatta, Nani Harlina Md Latar, Syarifuddin Wahid

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15 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Around 70% of breast cancers (BCs) are estrogen receptor-α (ERα)-positive. Adjuvant endocrine therapy is used to reduce estrogen levels and inhibit signal transduction through the ER. The anti-estrogen drugs that are most commonly used in endocrine therapy belong to the selective ER modulator (SERM) class and include tamoxifen. Although it has been used for three decades in cases of early-stage and ERα-positive BC, resistance to tamoxifen is a common problem. microRNAs (miRNAs) have a potential role in demonstrating BC resistance to tamoxifen therapy. Hence, there is a need to investigate the expression of miRNA-221 (miR-221) in luminal-subtype BC patients receiving tamoxifen therapy. Methods: This case-control study investigated luminal-subtype BC patients who had undergone endocrine therapy for at least 1 year. The case group comprised patients with local or metastatic recurrence, and the control group comprised patients without local or metastatic recurrence. Results: There was a significant difference in miR-221 expression (p = 0.005) between the case and control groups. There were no significant differences between the groups that were positive and negative for the progesterone receptor (PR) (p = 0.25), had high and low marker of proliferation Ki-67 levels (p = 0.60), were positive and negative for lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.14), and had stage 2 and stage 3 cancer (p = 0.25). Conclusion: miR-221 expression was higher in tamoxifen-resistant BC cases. miR-221 is a potential biomarker of tamoxifen resistance.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103092
JournalAnnals of Medicine and Surgery
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022


  • Estrogen
  • Luminal
  • microRNA-221
  • Resistance
  • Tamoxifen


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