Metabolome analysis and chemical profiling of Indonesian royal jellies as the raw material for cosmetic and bio-supplement products

Eka Sari, Kaysa Faradis Mahira, Dhavalkumar Narendrabhai Patel, Lee Suan Chua, Diah Kartika Pratami, Muhamad Sahlan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Royal jellies (RJs) possess moisturizing, emulsifying, and stabilizing properties, and several pharmacological activities have also been found to be present, which make them an ideal component for cosmetic and skin care products. However, despite the abundant efficacies, there is a lack of studies that explore the chemical composition of RJ using metabolome analysis. Furthermore, an evaluation of the chemical composition of Indonesian RJs collected from different regions has yet to be carried out. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to identify any differences in the chemical composition of such RJs. Chemical profiling was also carried out to enable more targeted utilization based on the actual compositions. Chemical profiling is also important given the rich Indonesian biodiversity and the high dependence of the RJ compositions on the botanical source. In this research, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used as part of an untargeted metabolomics approach. From the chemical profiling, >30 compounds were identified across four RJ samples. The major constituents of the samples were found to be oligosaccharides, fatty acids, and adenosine monophosphate derivatives. Meanwhile, sucrose and planteose were found to be highest in the samples from Banjarnegara and Kediri, whereas dimethyloctanoic acid was found to be unique to the sample from Banjarnegara. It was also discovered that the RJs from Demak and Tuban contained more organic fatty acids and oligosaccharides than the other samples. Although the sample from Demak demonstrated good potential for use in the cosmetic, skin care, and bio-supplement industries, the higher abundance of fatty acids and oligosaccharides in the sample from Tuban indicated that it is perhaps the most suitable RJ for use in this field.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere06912
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2021


  • Cosmetic
  • Metabolomics
  • Royal jelly
  • Sebacic acid
  • Skin


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