The Government of Indonesia is testing a conditional cash transfer (CCT) program, e.g., Family Hope Program. This program provides money to poor households conditional on investments in human capital. CCTs implementation in various countries has been followed by systematic efforts to measure their effectiveness and understand their broader impact on households’ behavior. The article shows empirical evidence that CCTs have improved the lives of poor people. CCTs have been hailed as a way of reducing inequality, especially in Latin America countries; helping households break out of a vicious cycle whereby poverty is transmitted from one generation to another; promoting child health and nutrition; and helping countries meet the Millennium Development Goals. This article explores more deeply on the design of the Indonesian CCT program, including the reasons for the development of CCT health and health conditionalities determination process.