Mechanism of elevated LH/FSH ratio in lean PCOS revisited: a path analysis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder affecting 5-20% of reproductive-age women. However, the treatment of PCOS is mainly based on symptoms and not on its pathophysiology. Neuroendocrine disturbance, as shown by an elevated LH/FSH ratio in PCOS patients, was thought to be the central mechanism of the syndrome, especially in lean PCOS. LH and FSH secretion are influenced by GnRH pulsatility of GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus. Kisspeptin is the main regulator of GnRH secretion, whereas neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin regulate kisspeptin secretion in KNDy neurons. This study aims to deepen the understanding of the neuroendocrine disorder in lean PCOS patients and its potential pathophysiology-based therapy. A cross-sectional study was performed at Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Kencana Hospital and the IMERI UI HRIFP cluster with 110 lean PCOS patients as subjects. LH, FSH, LH/FSH ratio, kisspeptin, NKB, dynorphin, leptin, adiponectin, AMH, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, testosterone, and SHBG were measured. Bivariate and path analyses were performed to determine the relationship between variables. There was a negative association between dynorphin and kisspeptin, while NKB levels were not associated with kisspeptin. There was no direct association between kisspeptin and the LH/FSH ratio; interestingly, dynorphin was positively associated with the LH/FSH ratio in both bivariate and pathway analyses. AMH was positively correlated with the LH/FSH ratio in both analyses. Path analysis showed an association between dynorphin and kisspeptin levels in lean PCOS, while NKB was not correlated with kisspeptin. Furthermore, there was a correlation between AMH and the LH/FSH ratio, but kisspeptin levels did not show a direct significant relationship with the LH/FSH ratio. HOMA-IR was negatively associated with adiponectin levels and positively associated with leptin and FAI levels. In conclusion, AMH positively correlates with FAI levels and is directly associated with the LH/FSH ratio, showing its important role in neuroendocrinology in lean PCOS. From the path analysis, AMH was also an intermediary variable between HOMA-IR and FAI with the LH/FSH ratio. Interestingly, this study found a direct positive correlation between dynorphin and the LH/FSH ratio, while no association between kisspeptin and the LH/FSH ratio was found. Further research is needed to investigate AMH and dynorphin as potential therapeutic targets in the management of lean PCOS patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8229
Number of pages1
JournalScientific reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 8 Apr 2024


  • AMH
  • Dynorphin
  • FAI
  • Kisspeptin
  • Lean
  • LH/FSH ratio
  • Neurokinin B
  • PCOS


Dive into the research topics of 'Mechanism of elevated LH/FSH ratio in lean PCOS revisited: a path analysis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this