Maternal, newborn, and children under-five health surveillance system: a scoping review protocol

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Background: Public health surveillance is crucial in monitoring the progress of maternal, newborn, and children under-five health outcomes (MNCH). Consequently, mapping the existing surveillance system from countries with different income and development levels is needed to learn and compare the effectiveness of surveillance. However, the current COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the health system, including the healthcare services for pregnant women, neonates, infants, and children under five, as well as the recording, reporting, and surveillance system. The need to adapt to the new normal during the pandemic has stimulated innovation while incorporating new COVID-19-related indicators into the existing public health system. Therefore, this review aims to describe the existing implementation and the COVID-19 pandemic’s influence on the MNCH surveillance system. Methods: We will search published literature (from MEDLINE, Embase, and Portal Garuda), manually search from all reference lists of included studies, and conduct a targeted search of relevant gray literature. This review will include studies of surveillance systems or describe COVID-19 surveillance or routine reports involving MNCH (morbidity and mortality). The studies included will be in English or Indonesian language, observational study designs, and published or documented from 2010 to 2023. Two investigators will independently screen the title and abstract, including each full article to determine the eligibility of studies. The data will be assessed using a narrative approach. Data will be reported in simple descriptive tables. Discussion: Our findings are expected to map the existing implementation of MNCH surveillance systems before and during the pandemic, including the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on MNCH surveillance across countries with different income levels. This may contribute to existing knowledge on the MNCH health surveillance system that could be integrated into the surveillance of emerging diseases, such as COVID-19. Systematic review registration: The protocol has been registered on the Open Science Framework (

Original languageEnglish
Article number220
JournalSystematic Reviews
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


  • Children under five
  • COVID-19
  • Maternal
  • Newborn
  • Pandemic
  • Surveillance


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