Maternal and Perinatal Outcome of Maternal Obesity at RSCM in 2014-2019

Junita Indarti, Sulaeman Andrianto Susilo, Purnomo Hyawicaksono, Jimmy Sakti Nanda Berguna, Galuh Anindya Tyagitha, Muhammad Ikhsan

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4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Obesity is a pandemic found in many countries. It is estimated that, in 2025, more than 21% of women in the world will suffer from obesity and its number keeps increasing yearly. Obesity in pregnancy is one of the important challenges in obstetric services given the prevalence and potential adverse effects on the mother and fetus. Obese women have a higher risk of developing gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, venous thromboembolism, postpartum hemorrhage, cesarean delivery, and maternal death. The aim of this research is to determine the prevalence of maternal and perinatal complication in various obesity grades. This research was an observational descriptive study using the cross-sectional design. The inclusion criterion is obese pregnant women whose delivery was done in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital (RSCM) from 2014 to 2019. The exclusion criterion in this study is the incomplete medical record. A total of 111 subjects were included in the study. Obesity grades in this study were based on World Health Organization (WHO) obesity, divided into 3 classifications which are obese I (30-34.9 kg/m2), obese II (35-39.9 kg/m2), and obese III (≥40 kg/m2). Maternal outcomes in this study were birth method, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and premature rupture of membrane (PROM). Perinatal outcomes in this study were preterm birth, birth weight, APGAR score, and postdelivery neonatal care. In this study, obese patients had a mean age of 31.23 years, mean gravida 2, parity 1, and abortion 0. Most of these patients used an intrauterine device (IUD) for family planning (74.8%). There were no differences in age, parity status, and family planning methods in each group of patients with different body mass index (p>0.05). Maternal characteristics are the majority of deliveries performed cesarean delivery (86.5%), cases of diabetes mellitus are more common in obese I patients (50%), preeclampsia is more prevalent in obese grade II patients (34,4%), and premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is more common in patients with obese II (52,4%). However, there was no difference in the prevalence of maternal outcomes between groups. There was a median gestational age of 37 weeks in all obesity grades, the highest percentage of preterm births owned by obese II patients (32,6%), the mean birth weight of babies tends to increase along with the weighting of the body mass index group, and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) treatment rooms were mostly occupied from mother with obese II groups (18%). There was no difference in the first-minute and fifth-minute APGAR scores between study groups (p>0.05). There were no differences in perinatal outcomes between groups. There were no significant differences in maternal and perinatal outcomes prevalence between different obesity grades. However, the rate of maternal and perinatal complications in obese women is higher than the normal population, thus requiring sophisticated prevention and approach toward handling the pregnancy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6039565
JournalObstetrics and Gynecology International
Volume2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021

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