After an an injury to a nerve in the peripheral nervous system, there is partial or full loss of function in the innervated organ. This may present as paralysis, in motor neuron injury, or loss of sensation in sensory neurons lesions. Due to this, the body triggers a regenerative process through intrinsic and extrinsic pathways to enable the regrowth of the affected site or discontinuity on the axon. The proximal segment of the injured nerve develops growth cones that grow, with guidance from molecular signaling pathways, towards the ischemic distal stump. The triggering off of this process is dependent on neurotrophic factors (NTFs) and neuropoietic cytokines that are produced during the inflammatory response. This, therefore, creates a growth-friendly milieu around the axon. In conjunction with intrinsic signaling pathways, the regrowth process is coordinated and modulated to enable the axon to resume its functionality. The article used under this review were accessed primarily from Pubmed search engine and NCBI Bioinformatics search engine. Some material were added from Google Scholar. All these articles were relevant to the topic under study and were in Standard English. PRISMA guide was used as the criteria of inclusion and elimination. Twenty out of the initial one hundred and twenty-four made it through the elimination criteria. These sources had spelled out the physiological processes of the relevant molecules and pathways. The research experiments shown in the different resources all added substantial value to the topic of study. These, therefore, enabled simple analysis and comparison of facts and coming up with the conclusion. There are numerous markers of peripheral neuronal regeneration. These include simple molecules, structural proteins or even complex signaling pathways. None of these indicators proves superior to the other. Their functions are either additive or inhibitory to the others within a complex system where the molecules communicate with others in different pathways. Other markers are considered redundant since other markers serve an overlapping purpose.
|Number of pages||12|
|Journal||Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jul 2016|
- Peripheral neuronal regeneration
- Regeneration markers