Background This study aims to identify, map, and reflect on actual-virtual relations in architectural design practices. Virtuality is more than just a discourse of technology. Virtuality is an attempt to realize unlimited possibilities. This study uses the context of the Venice Architecture Biennale (2021) exhibition with the theme 'How Will We Live Together?' to illustrate various possibilities of space construction through the actual-virtual framework. Methods The identification of actual-virtual is performed by qualitatively decomposing the case studies of 60 pavilions. The analysis is carried out by drawing and retracing the data for each pavilion to discover various actual-virtual instruments, operations, and relations in the exhibition. Reflection on the actual-virtual concept that traverses multiple dimensions of space and time, becomes the basis for seeing actual-virtual as a potential. Results This study reveals various types of actual-virtual operations and relations in the context of architectural exhibitions. The connection between origin and execution in exhibitions parallels the actualvirtual relational framework. Disassembling the case study also demonstrates the actual-virtual possibility as a design instrument that connects multidimensional space and time. Conclusions This study offers to deliver another perspective on actual-virtual relations in architecture. This study expands the actual-virtual abstract and conceptual discourse into more practical and operative perspectives. The findings demonstrate the possibility of broadening design knowledge based on an actual-virtual relational framework in an architectural context.
- Spatial Operations