Malnutrition and socio-demographic factors associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in Timor and Rote Islands, Indonesia

Trevino Aristarkus Pakasi, E. Karyadi, W. M V Dolmans, J. W M Van Der Meer, K. Van Der Velden

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23 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVE: To identify nutritional and socio-demographic factors for the development of tuberculosis (TB) in Timor and Rote Island, Indonesia, so that intervention programmes can be developed to address these factors. METHODS: In a case-control study, we enrolled new sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB patients as cases, and neighbours matched for sex and age as controls. Data obtained included history of TB, socio-demographic factors and nutritional status. RESULTS: In the study, 121 TB patients and 371 controls participated. The mean age was 30 years: 56.3% were male and 43.7% female. Of the TB patients, 87% had malnutrition compared to 33% among controls. The mean body mass index (BMI) of the patients was significantly lower than that of the controls (16.1 ± 2.3 kg/m2 vs. 19.4 ± 3.0 kg/m2). Factors associated with the development of TB were BMI (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4-0.6), family history of TB (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.6-6.4), living in an extended family (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.5-4.8), being non-indigenous to Timor and Rote Islands (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.2-6.8) and being unemployed (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.7-8.6). CONCLUSION: Among patients with active pulmonary TB, the prevalence of malnutrition was very high. Malnutrition, which is a general problem for the whole community and particularly among people not indigenous to Timor and Rote, should be addressed in the fight against TB.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)755-759
Number of pages5
JournalInternational Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2009


  • Malnutrition
  • Socio-demographic factors
  • Tuberculosis


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