Background: Esophageal varices occur at middle to advanced stages of cirrhosis and are associated with increased mortality due to their potential for rupture and bleeding. The aim of this study is to examine the accuracy of a surrogate marker, Mac-2 binding protein glycosylation isomer (M2BPGi), for screening high-risk esophageal varices in cirrhotic patients. Methods: Ninety-four cirrhotic patients who underwent endoscopy screening at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia were included. Patients with a history of ligation, portal vein thrombosis, or hepatocellular carcinoma were excluded. All enrolled patients underwent ultrasonography, transient elastography, and laboratory tests. The HISCL-5000 Sysmex analyzer was used to measure M2BPGi levels. Results: Of these 94 patients, 27 had high-risk esophageal varices and 67 had non-high-risk esophageal varices. M2BPGi levels were higher in patients with high-risk esophageal varices compared with those with non-high-risk esophageal varices (cutoff index (COI) of 11.4 vs. 3.7, p < 0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of M2BPGi with a cutoff value of 5 COI was 92.6%, 70.1%, 55.6%, and 95.9%, respectively. Conclusions: M2BPGi could be used as a non-invasive surrogate marker for ruling out high-risk esophageal varices in cirrhotic patients. This method is cheap and non-invasive and could be used as a screening tool in resource-limited settings.
- cirrhosis; high-risk esophageal varices; M2BPGi; screening; non-invasive