Brugia timori is a pathogenic filarial nematode of humans, replacing the closely related species Brugia malayi on some islands in eastern Indonesia. Recent studies on Alor island show that, locally, B. timori is still of great public health importance, causing mainly acute filarial fever and chronic lymphedema. PCR-based assays to detect parasite DNA, in addition to assays for detecting specific antibodies that have been originally developed for B. malayi, can be used efficiently as diagnostic tools for B. timori. In the framework of the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, a single annual dose of diethylcarbamazine, in combination with albendazole, was found to reduce the prevalence and density of microfilaraemia persistently. Therefore, elimination of B. timori appears to be achievable.