Background. Treatment of cleft lip and palate (CLP) requires a comprehensive interdisciplinary approach and long-term follow-up. Only a few studies are available that reported on changes after treatment, which showed that in particular the transverse dimension, in patients with CLP is prone to changes after treatment. However, those studies did not pay attention to concomitant changes in the mandibular arch that occur after treatment. Objectives. To evaluate mandibular transverse dental arch dimensions and interarch transverse changes in patients with complete non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip, alveolus, and palate (CUCLAP) up to five years after treatment. Material and Methods. Retrospective longitudinal study in 75 consecutive patients with CUCLAP directly after comprehensive treatment (T0), two (T2), and 5 years after treatment (T5). Great Ormond Street, London and Oslo (GOSLON) scores were available for all patients. Three-dimensional scans of all dental casts were made. Inter premolar and intermolar distances between the mandibular contralateral teeth were measured. The modified Huddart Bodenham (MHB index) was applied to assess the transverse interarch relationship. Paired t-tests and ANOVA were used to analyze transverse and interarch transverse changes. Linear regression analysis was done to define contributing factors. Results. Paired t-tests showed a significant decrease of the mandibular inter first and second premolar distances (p<0:05) and an increase of the inter second molar distance, whilst the MHB Index deteriorated at all time points for all segments and for the total arch score (p<0:05). Linear regression showed no significant contributing factors on the decrease of the transverse distances. However, inter arch transverse relationship was significantly affected by age at the end of treatment, missing maxillary lateral incisor space closure, and the GOSLON Yardstick score at the end of treatment (p < 0:05), especially during the first two years after treatment. Conclusions. Changes occurred in the mandibular arch expressed as changes in the transverse dimensions and interarch relationship measured by the MHB Index. A younger age at the end of treatment, space closure for a missing maxillary lateral incisor and a higher GOSLON score at the end of treatment negatively influence the interarch transverse deterioration especially in the first two years after treatment. For the transverse dimensional changes in the mandibular arch such influencing factors could not be determined.
- And palate
- Complete unilateral cleft lip and palate
- Dental casts
- Long-term outcome
- Mandibular dental arch
- Modified Huddart-Bodenham Index
- Unilateral cleft lip