Long-Term Follow-up of Full-Awake Hand Surgery in Major Flexor Tendon Injury of the Hand and Forearm

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6 Citations (Scopus)


Background Full-awake hand surgery (FAHS) has been gaining attention in recent years. However, the extent of full-awake approach for longer and more complicated major surgeries for the hand in trauma cases remains unclear. This study aimed to report the clinical nature of major flexor tendon trauma cases with subsequent repair under FAHS. Methods Retrospective study was performed on 9 male patients with an average age of 32.22 (SD, 9.67) years who experienced surgery for major flexor tendon ruptures under FAHS. Besides involving 3 digits in fingers, hand, or forearm, extensive surgery involved 3 cases with surgical dissection similar to the one needed to repair flexor tendons of 3 digits in zone 2. Results The assessment that was performed at least 3 years after surgery included not only the efficacy of FAHS but also the total active range of motion, opposition function, Medsger severity scale, and Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score. All repairs and explorations were performed under FAHS with 2 subjects who needed conversion to general anesthesia owing to intraoperative visual analog scale score of greater than 4. Average surgery duration under FAHS was 225 (170-309) minutes. Through an average follow-up of 4.1 years, all patients showed normal Medsger scale, with 7 cases that had excellent total active range of motion and 8 cases, excellent opposition. Median Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score was 15 (9-28.5). Conclusions Full-awake hand surgery is potential surgical approach for major flexor tendon trauma cases resulting in satisfactory long term functional outcome.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)163-168
Number of pages6
JournalAnnals of Plastic Surgery
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2019


  • anesthesia, local
  • epinephrine
  • hand injuries
  • tendon injuries
  • wakefulness


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