Lithium Lanthanum Titanate derived from Lanthanum Oxalate as the Anode Active Material in Lithium-ion Batteries

Benediktus Ma’dika, Retna Deca Pravitasari, Riesma Tasomara, Ade Utami Hapsari, Damisih, Sri Rahayu, Hanif Yuliani, Oka Pradipta Arjasa, Nendar Herdianto, Yelvia Deni, Suyanti, Anne Zulfia Syahrial, Mahendra Rao Somalu, Jarot Raharjo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Lithium-ion battery has been drawing attention from researchers due to its excellent properties in terms of electrochemical and structural stability, low cost, and high safety feature, leading to prospective applications in electric vehicles and other large-scale applications. However, lithium-ion batteries are still in charging time owing to its low conductivity, restricting its wide applications in large-scale applications. In this work, therefore, lithium lanthanum titanate (LLTO) was synthesized derived from lanthanum oxalate, as a lanthanum source, for an anode active material application in the lithium-ion batteries due its high electrochemical conductivity and pseudocapacitive characteristics. To the best our knowledge, our work is the first one to synthesize LLTO from lanthanum oxalate as the lanthanum source. Commercial lithium carbonate and commercial titanium oxide were used as the lithium and titanium sources, respectively. It was used low cost and simple solid-state reaction process to synthesize this material and performed a two-step calcination processs at 800 oC for 8 hours and 1050 oC for 12 hours under ambient atmosphere. The physical characteristics showed that LLTO possesses high purity (98.141%) and micro sized grains with abundant empty spaces between the grains. This, therefore, lead to improve electrochemical performances such as stable discharge capacity at low potential even near to zero (98.67 mAh), and a high conductivity of 2.45 × 10-2 S/cm at room temperature. This LLTO is interesting to be used as the anode active material in low potential lithium-ion battery applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)138-145
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Integrated Engineering
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Anode active material
  • Lanthanum oxalate
  • Lithium lanthanum titanate
  • Lithium-ion battery
  • Solid-state reaction


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