Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Vehicle Batteries: Review and Critical Appraisal

Ajun Tri Setyoko, Rahmat Nurcahyo, Sik Sumaedi

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


The most environmentally damaging aspect of using electric vehicles is the batteries. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach has been widely used to conduct inventory analysis of energy usage and GHG emissions throughout battery production and assembly. There are many analytical frameworks and models for conducting LCA, but each method uses different results. This study aims to investigate numerous LCA studies on electric vehicle batteries using ISO 14040 and its derivatives. We propose the limits of a cradle-to-grave system so that LCA provides optimal results for comparative studies and potential for continuous improvement. A schematic overview of the electric car battery life cycle covers material extraction, material processing, product manufacture, product use, and end-of-life recovery measures. Global warming, eutrophication, acidification, ozone depletion, abiotic depletion, particulate matter, human toxicity, ecotoxicity, and Cumulated Energy Demand (CED) are all impact categories in LCA study.

Original languageEnglish
Article number02041
JournalE3S Web of Conferences
Publication statusPublished - 18 Dec 2023
Event8th International Conference on Industrial, Mechanical, Electrical and Chemical Engineering, ICIMECE 2023 - Lombok, Indonesia
Duration: 30 Oct 202331 Oct 2023


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