LDL cholesterol goal attainment in hypercholesterolemia: CEPHEUS indonesian survey

Muhammad Munawar, Beny Hartono, Sodiqur Rifqi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Several studies have shown that lipid-lowering therapy to address hypercholesterolemia is generally inadequate because the target cholesterol goal is not achieved. Our study reviews the cholesterol goal attainment among patients receiving lipid lowering therapy in Indonesian hypercholesterolemic patients. Methods: This surveywas part of the Pan-Asian CEPHEUS (CEntralized Pan-Asian survey on tHE Under-treatment of hypercholeSterolemia) study, involving hypercholesterolemic patients 18 years of age, who were on lipidlowering treatment for 3 months. Lipid concentrations were measured, demographic and other clinically relevant information were collected. Definitions and criteria set by the updated 2004 National Cholesterol Education Program - Adult Treatment Program III was applied. Results: In this survey, 149 physicians enrolled 979 patients, of whom only 834 were included in the final analysis. The mean age was 56.5 years, 53.5% male, and 82.3% were on statin monotherapy. The LDL-C goal attainment rate amongst Indonesians (31.3%)was belowthat of the overall Asian rate (49.1%). The lowest attainment (12.1%)was found in patients with a therapeutic target < 70mg/dL. Additionally, the goal attainment rate in patients with metabolic syndrome (28%) was significantly lower than in patients without metabolic syndrome (37.5%, p = 0.006). Goal attainment was inversely related to cardiovascular risk and baseline LDL-C (p < 0.001). It was also noted that approximately 65.1% of patients believed he/she could miss a dosage without affecting his/her blood cholesterol concentration. Conclusions: High proportions of Indonesian hypercholesterolemic patients on lipid-lowering drug are not at the recommended LDL-C levels, and remain at risk for cardiovascular disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)71-81
Number of pages11
JournalActa Cardiologica Sinica
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2013


  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Dyslipidemia
  • Hypercholesterolemia
  • Indonesian
  • LDL cholesterol


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