Laboratory findings and clinical characteristics of pneumocystis pneumonia and tuberculosis infection among HIV-infected patients with pulmonary infiltrates in Jakarta, Indonesia

A. Rozaliyani, W. H. Wiyono, M. A. Nawas, R. Sjam, R. Adawiyah, M. Tugiran, R. Wahyuningsih

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) and pulmonary tuberculosis infection (PTB) are important opportunistic infections in HIV-infected patients. The diagnosis remains challenging since Pneumocystis jirovecii cannot be cultured, and expectorated-sputum is frequently difficult to obtain. The monoclonal-antibody detection for P. jirovecii from induced sputum is promising in diagnosing PCP. This study determined the percentage of PCP in HIV-infected patients with pulmonary infiltrates at three government hospitals in Jakarta. The concurrent infection of PTB was carefully documented as well. This cross-sectional study was carried out by documenting the clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, chest X-ray, while clinical outcomes were evaluated during hospitalization. The sputum induction was conducted for P. jirovecii with monoclonal antibody detection at the laboratory of Parasitology Department, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, as well as Ziehl-Nielsen staining for PTB. The results indicated that of 55 HIV-infected patients with pulmonary infiltrates, the positive monoclonal antibody for P. jirovecii was detected in eight patients (14.6%). Weight loss, fever, shortness of breath, and crackles were found in all PCP patients; while dry cough in five patients. Moreover, PTB cases with positive acid-fast bacilli (AFB) was detected in five patients (9.1%), the PTB cases with negative AFB was 43.6% (24 out of 55 patients), and the rest 26 patients (47.3%) were not proven to have PTB. The concurrent infections of PCP and PTB were documented in three out of five positive AFB patients. The clinical outcome of eight PCP patients showed improvement in five patients, but the other three patients died. Laboratory findings play an important role in the diagnosis of PCP and PTB, along with clinical characteristics and radiological features. Low CD4+ cell count was considered a possible risk factor for PCP and poor clinical outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1117-1123
Number of pages7
JournalTropical Biomedicine
Volume37
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

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