The association of obesity and cigarette smoking against hypertension has been known but still rarely performed a joint effect of obesity and cigarette smoking in causing hypertension stage 1. This study aims to evaluate the joint effect of obesity and cigarette smoking against hypertension stage 1 in Indonesia. This is a cross-sectional study. Subjects in this study were the age group ≥18 years old who were followed by the interview. We investigated factors related to hypertension stage 1 in Indonesia associated with obesity and cigarette smoking by controlling other confounding variables. The prevalence of hypertension stage 1 was 19.84% among participants. Multivariate analysis showed that people who smoked and obese had a 2.61 greater risk of having hypertension stage 1 compared with obese and non-smokers 2.41, and people not obese and smoking 1.18. People with obesity and smoking have a greater risk of developing hypertension stage 1. Substantial effort must be made to raise awareness about controlling blood pressure regularly and early treatment especially in people who were smoked and obese.
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Dec 2018|
- Cigarette smoking
- Hypertension stage 1
- Joint effect